Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

Alzheimer’s disease is a brain condition that gradually damages memory and intellectual abilities, as well as one’s ability to do even the most basic things. It is a general state of dementia. It is detected in people older than the age of 60. At the onset of this disease, people often forget who they are and what they are doing. It occurs when proteins of beta-amyloid are accumulated in the free areas of the brain and get twisted by another protein known as the Tau protein.

Symptoms of AD

At the start of this disease, the patient usually forgets about any new information learned moments ago. With the passage of time, it progresses into a serious state in which the patient forgets about his family, his work, and other important aspects of his life.

Relation between AD and other diseases 

Several health ailments are linked with Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s no doubt is an acute neuropsychiatric disease, that gradually severs, but also increases the patient’s vulnerability to other illnesses as well and it is hard to identify symptoms for other health problems, especially at a later stage. 

This disease affects in ways like cognitive changes, impaired judgment, and forgetting things from time to time due to nerve cell death, making it more difficult to treat other health conditions. Because as the disease advances patients may face difficulties in speaking, control over the bladder and bowel, explaining where they are hurt even for a minor injury, and avoiding prescribed treatment plans for other risk factors.

As a result of being unable to do the most common tasks of the day, this disease can lead to a number of health problems that get serious in the absence of proper diagnosis and treatment. Some of the diseases that are observed mostly in Alzheimer’s patients are cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Dementia, Diffuse Lewy Body Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and cardiovascular risk factors.

Relation between cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is causing dementia and is affecting about 50 million people all around the globe.  According to the research by Alzheimer’s Association, it was found that AD accounts for 60-80 % of dementia cases. Both the terms Alzheimer’s and dementia are not for the same thing, Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive type of dementia. 

Some patients may go on a long way with mild cognitive damage to the brain. However, some other victims suffer a more rushed severity of the symptoms and much faster advancement to a later stage.  Due to the symptoms like defective memory, thinking, and interference with daily living caused by brain injuries or other diseases, dementia is considered much more specific than other brain illnesses like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, etc

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)

According to many reports, Alzheimer’s disease is a complex neurological disorder indicated by blood-brain barrier malfunction or degradation of neurons that is prevailed as a result of a frequent accumulation of Aβ peptides (beta-Amyloid) forming plaques and P-tau protein(hyperphosphorylated) that is called cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), respectively. Although the major cause of the disease is still unknown to science, it has been also observed that vascular pathology often leads to AD also.

Relation between cardiovascular risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease

A study suggests that cardiovascular (CV) disease impacts the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and also links with the risk of developing dementia. It is a common condition observed in people of older age and also MRI scans of AD patients designate vascular pathology.

National Academy of Medicine and the Lancet reported that dementia can be prevented by up to 35% by encouraging modification of different lifestyle-associated RFs such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and physical inactivity. Publicly available genetic data from different cardiovascular reports and a combination of traits and diseases that have been epidemiologically associated with increased AD risk was used.

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